How Do Different People Assess Social Change In Nepal?
They speak Newari and follow Newar traditions but always retained matrimonial and other relations with the Terai. Pañchthariya or simply Shrestha, and iii. The groups are delineated using language, ethnic identity or the caste system in Nepal. Today, they picture themselves as the most genuine Newars, the epitome of their society and culture. The Rajopadhyayas still keep a strong tradition of Vedic and Tantric rituals alive, a fact exemplified for instance at the recent Lakhhōma, performed with contributions of the whole town of Bhaktapur. Suwal, Duwal, Basukala, Singh, Desar, Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc. , The case of Newār is exceptional. The mother tongue of these groups is Nepali. Ritual funeral specialists for Hindu Newars, Farmers from valley outskirts; not accepted as, Fishermen, sweepers, traditional executioners. The Chatharīya or sometimes shortened to Chatharī are the high-caste Sresthas and the clans within this group correspond as Kshatriya varna since they claim descent from Suryavansha, Agnivansha, Chandravanshi houses of Kshatriya kings from the south, most of whom entered Nepal Valley during the Malla era, and indeed many trace their roots to Malla royalty or the nobility during the Malla era. The old Newar upper caste, the Shrestha, were also reduced to Matawali status.
Newar caste logic stratifies the Uray and the Pāncthariya Srēṣṭha as the core Vaishya (alternatively Baisya) of Newars who are highly specialized in trade and commerce. Madhikarmi (Halwai), Māka, Mulmi, Bhadra, Kachhapati, Banepali, Deoju, Nyachhyon, Bijukchhe, Sivacharya, etc. (Census, 2001), In recent times, following the overthrow of the Nepali monarchy and move towards a federal republic, ethnicity and caste have taken center stage – the indigenous peoples (Adivasi Janajati) who make up a third of the country having been guaranteed rights that have not yet been fulfilled. Similarly, serious limitations and oversights of this code include the complete exclusion of the large middle-ranking Terai groups. , Since Nepal's unification, various indigenous languages have come under threat of extinction as the government of Nepal has marginalized their use through strict policies designed to promote Nepali as the official language. Terai and Newar Brahmins and Kshatriyas were officially placed below their Khas equivalents. Pañchthariya and especially Chatharīya reject the claims of such pretensions and prevent caste endogamy and commensality with such groups. Today, even after the end of a 10-year-old Maoist conflict, the upper caste dominates every field in Nepal. [note 1], Teej celebrated by women of Khas community, Banras/Shakya Buddhist priests of Newar group, Children from isolated Danuwar ethnolinguistic group, Limbus playing traditional chyabrung, Ilam, Nepal, Senior offering Dashain Tika; a feature of Khas Parbattia community, Khas man of Nepal, as depicted in The People of India (1868-1875), List of ethnic caste-groups in Nepal by population, Pages 191/192 of the total pdf or pages 156/157 in the scanned material shows Nepalese castes/ethnic groups, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), "Economic and social structures that may explain the recent conflicts in the Terai of Nepal", "Population Monograph of Nepal Volume II (Social Demography)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ethnic_groups_in_Nepal&oldid=986920376, Articles needing additional references from March 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 19:35. Historically, Newars in general divided non-Newar Pahade (hill) Nepalis into two groups: Sae(n) and Khae(n). Deepening Democracy: International Labour Organisation Convention 169 and Nepal's Democratic Transition, Nepal: Towards a Democratic Republic: Caste, Ethnicity and Inequality in Nepal, Material from this site has been borrowed for this article with the permission of Dr. Vepachedu, Interview with Ian Martin: Caste-Based Discrimination in Nepal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caste_system_in_Nepal&oldid=985350608, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manandhar/Sāyami/Teli (oil-pressers and brewers), Khadgi, Naye, Kasai (butchers and musicians), Dyala, Podhya, Chyamaha/Chandala (sweepers, fishermen), "Namasinya Matwali" (Non-enslavable Alcohol Drinkers), Newar Hindu Vaishya-equivalent Panchthariya Srēsthas and Newar Buddhists – Gubhaju/Baré (, "Masinya Matwali" (Enslavable Alcohol Drinkers), "Pani Na Chalne Chhoichhito Haalnu Naparne" (Water-unacceptable but touchable), "Pani Na Chalne Chhoichhito Haalnu Parne" (Water-unacceptable and untouchable), Nancy E. Levine.  The law also comprised Prāyaścitta (avoidance and removal of sin) and Ācāra (the customary law of different castes and communities). MOPE (2002). This group include among them highly differentiated and specialized castes – agriculturalists, farmers, potters, painters, dyers, florists, butchers, tailors, cleaners, etc. The Newar caste structure resembles more closely that of North India and Madheshis than that of Khas ‘Parbatiya’ in that all four varna (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) and untouchables are represented. They serve as traditional non-Brahmin Tantric priests of Taleju, the guardian deity of the Malla kings, as well as various other Tantric temples of Kathmandu valley. This history of exclusion coupled with poor prospects for improvement created grievances that encouraged many in ethnic communities such as Madhesi, Tharu and Kham Magar to support the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and various other armed Maoist opposition groups such as the JTMM during and after the Nepalese Civil War. Therefore, while Rājopādhyāya Brahmins occupy the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-Bhajus) form the head among the Buddhists. The residual group, neither Khae(n) nor Sae(n), are Muslims and Westerners, and these are generally treated as untouchable by the highest levels, and water-unacceptable by those below them. Similarly, the Janajati has 36.0% of the total population of the country, has representation of 7.1%. The legal recognition to caste and all the discriminatory laws made on the grounds of caste were ceased. Many Newars, in fact, participate in many of the observances of both religions.
However, since the unification of Nepal in the 18th century, Nepal's various non-Hindu indigenous nationalities and tribes, previously called "Matwalis" (alcohol-drinkers) and now termed as "Adivasi/Janajati" (indigenous/nationalities), have been incorporated within the caste hierarchy to varying degrees of success. Jhi Newa: Magazine. The Nepali civil code Muluki Ain was commissioned by Jung Bahadur Rana after his European tour and enacted in 1854. In 1962, a law was passed making it illegal to discriminate against other castes led all castes to be equally treated by the law. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. Brahmin and Chhetri women have experienced less social and economic mobility compared to Newari women. Jyapus are among the most progressive farmers in Nepal. Newar population in Nepal is almost 1.3 million which accounts almost 5.5% of total population of Nepal. Your email address will not be published. Rajopadhyaya, Sharma, Acharya, Subedi, Shukla. Conversely, those Khas (North Indian Indo-Aryan) groups untouchable to the Partya Brahmans and Chetri themselves are also untouchable for the Newars. A special sub-group of the Gubhaju is called Buddhacharya who are traditional priests of Swayambhunath temple, the most sacred temple for Buddhamargis. For the higher Parbatiya castes (Bahuns and Chetris), the higher twice-born Hindu castes (Brahmans, Chatharīya and Pañcthariya) exist in a kind of “separate but parallel” status with respect to the high caste Parbatiya. He became the first of the Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy of Ranas and secure his control over the land. Although Jung Bahadur and his descendants were well disposed to a few clientele Newar families, the 104 years of their family rule was not a golden age of Newar social history. The Bajracharyas, who belong to the first group, are placed at the top of the hierarchy among the Buddhamargi Newars. In some areas the rule of “seven generations” of descent is observed; members who fall within the common descent group of seven generations are restricted from intermarriage. The social values preached by the Muluki Ain, however, were providing restrictive, anachronic and out of step with the spirit of times. Rajopadhyaya and higher Shrestha clans also try to avoid “Sa-Gotra” marriages; marrying someone of the same gotra.
Despite the forceful integration by the state into the pan-Hindu social structure, the traditionally non-Hindu groups and tribes do not necessarily adhere to the customs and practices of the caste system.
Kathmandu: Ministry of Population and Environment, HMG, Nepal. Caste endogamy, however, which has been one of the main methods of maintaining status in India, is not strictly observed in Nepal by either the Newars or the Khasas. Nepali was the national language and Sanskrit became a required school subject. Caste endogamy, however, which has been one of the main methods of maintaining status in India, is not strictly observed in Nepal by either the Newars or the Khasas. Children who spoke Nepali natively and who were exposed to Sanskrit had much better chances of passing the national examinations at the end of high school, which meant they had better employment prospects and could continue into higher education. The Chatharīya and strict Pañcthariya accepted water (but not boiled and salted foods) from them. Its attempts to integrate the entire Newar status system into a national system was very awkward for all parties, and “often deficient or ambiguous and at variance with the self-assessment of the Newar castes.”. (2) Urāy or Udās, consists of nine main subgroups, viz Tuladhar, Bania, Kansakar, Tamrakar, Sthapit, Shikhrakar, Selalik, Sindurākār etc. Historical Relation to other non-Newar Nepalis. This latter group may consider all Newar people to be equally Matawali and other inhabitant Janajati of Nepal, all essentially of the Vaishya varna, but this is not the perception of the Newars themselves. of Sankhu. Their ranks have again and again been filled by immigrants from India, who nevertheless quickly integrated into the Newar society. They have been in control of the important means of production, namely the agricultural land, for generations. They are the indigenous people of the Kathmandu valley the and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic civilization.
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