Or you can have freedom. The payment of gold or other universal money is not a practicable method of paying reparations. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It was quickly discovered that European reconstruction would be assisted by allowing the Germans to retain the capital in their western areas. The truth 'will' set you free. The plan was initiated by a loan of 800 million marks to Germany. One was the political instability of Germany and its refusal to accept responsibility for the war.
It is less expensive to establish colonies than to maintain military occupation, and colonialism only harms inhabitants who pose no threat to the prince because they are scattered and poor.
After World War I, reparations were designed to be paid mainly in cash out of income. The value of reparations paid during this period was probably about 25 billion marks.
- Will Rogers, The Autobiography of Will Rogers The wise man who can command himself." Sometimes I wonder if there is any hope left for an Israeli-Palestinian discourse that is built on equality and liberty rather than a fruitless discourse of master and servant.
"Arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of liberty abused to licentiousness." The express policy was formulated at Potsdam in 1945. Two circumstances were mainly responsible for the failure of reparations. During the postwar period, however, Germany borrowed 33 billion marks from abroad. The major recipients were to be countries which Japan had occupied during the war. - Walter Lippmann, "Liberty is not merely a privilege to be conferred; it is a habit to be acquired."
"A Country can get more real joy out of just Hollering for their Freedom than they can if they get it."
Japan was to be disarmed of its economic power but left with enough capital to become self-supporting and to maintain a living level equal to that of other Asian countries. The sign at the right reads, “Lose the chains of Versailles, Germany is not a Negro state.”. After World War II the transfers of capital from Germany and Japan so threatened to dislocate the economic structure of Europe and Asia that measures were taken to reduce reparation liabilities.
The paradoxes of reparations history in the 20th century occurred in this realm. It was believed that such a method was easier to organize and more productive of a successful settlement (a viewpoint which was reversed after World War II). This in turn increases the real cost of reparations to the debtor and creates a corresponding gain to the creditor.
Prior to World War II, reparations were more often made as cash payments rather than as transfers in kind. In particular, the government has assumed the immense financial responsibility of making restitution to the…, A third baneful factor was reparations, the financial penalties imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles.….
The treaty provided that there should be a “ton for ton and class for class” replacement of Allied shipping by German vessels, Britain being the largest beneficiary under this category. - E. M. Forster, Two Cheers for Democracy, "Those who would give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety." If, on the other hand, maximum reparations are wanted by the victors, they cannot disarm the defeated country of its economic power. In a case of such necessity, and so directly in the line of their duty, something less than infallibility may, it is maintained, warrant, and even bind, governments, to act on their own opinion, confirmed by the general opinion of mankind. This is not a contest between persons. - Muhammad Ali, "It is a strange desire to seek power and to lose liberty, or to seek power over others and to lose power over a man's self." Finally, the payment of reparations depends on the willingness and ability of the victorious countries to accept the new economic structure attendant upon transfers of income or capital. Reparations were to be paid out of the difference between total German capital and the permissible amount. "Liberation is not deliverance." - Short, Solomon. Reparations are impossible without this surplus, and it is for practical purposes more dependent on increasing exports than on decreasing imports. In both World Wars the failure to obtain desired reparations was unmistakable.
- Adams, John in 'Novanglus', 'Boston Gazette' 06 Feb 1775, "You can have peace. Du Bois, John Brown "Americans, indeed all freemen, remember that in the final choice, a soldier's pack is not so heavy a burden as a prisoner's chains." The total of reparations paid is not exactly known because of uncertainty over payments between 1918 and 1924. Even with complete technical consistency in scaling down plant facilities there can be unnecessary losses when the reduced output is measured in monetary units. The Western powers sought to unify control over their zones in order to advance the reparations program, but here too there was disagreement over the amount of capital to be removed. Out of its annual production, a paying country exports certain commodities to its creditors or performs certain services for them. "You can have peace. A slight error in removing too much of one kind of equipment can produce a great loss in another industry, which in consequence must operate at undercapacity.
- LORD BYRON, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage The cost of war is more than just the dollars spent; it includes deaths, injuries, and destruction, along with unintended consequences that go on for decades. "Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two make four. Control over prices, the movement of goods, and labour represent a comprehensible wish to soften the rigours of reconstruction and of readjustment from war.
The costs of war are always much more than anticipated, while the benefits are much less. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Against these advantages must be set the complex economic problems created by the transfers. - George Washington "Since the general civilization of mankind, I believe there are more instances of the abridgment of freedom of the people, by gradual and silent encroachments of those in power than by violent & sudden usurpations." They avoid some of the more complex monetary problems of cash payments. - E. M. Forster, Two Cheers for Democracy After World War II some British trade unions resisted the attempt of the Labour government to use German prisoners of war to relieve critical labour shortages. - W. E. B. More or less every modern politician talks about “freedom” or “liberty.” Actually, they don’t talk about it as much as they use it as a magic incantation. "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty." Britain and France were…, Under agreements concluded with 12 European countries, Germany has paid compensation to the nationals of those countries who were victims of Nazi oppression or to their families and successors. The first of these three factors is most important. Dispossessed of this important area, Germany was unable to make payments and each attempt to convert marks into foreign currency drove down their value. "A man is either free or he is not. - JOHN STUART MILL, On Liberty, "Nip the shoots of arbitrary power in the bud, is the only maxim which can ever preserve the liberties of any people." - Bruce Barton, "Among a people generally corrupt liberty cannot long exist." Reparations cannot be paid out of revenue raised internally; the revenue must be converted into income or capital for transfer to the victor or into the currency of that country.
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