the inca: engineering an empire answer key

If all went smoothly and if tasks were performed in a timely fashion, a bridge had the potential of being constructed in three days.[17][18]. Mountain roads and sacrificial platforms were built, which means a great amount of time was spent hauling loads of soil, rocks, and grass up to these inhospitable heights. The process of freeze-drying was important for transportation and storage. [19][20] This tradition links the Quechua communities of the Huinchiri, Chaupibanda, Choccayhua, and Ccollana Quehue to their past ancestors. At its height, the Inca empire controlled all of the western part of the South American continent between Ecuador and Chile. However, for centuries historians have used the term in reference to the nearly 100 nations conquered by the Inca.

Old World infectious disease left its devastating mark on New World Indian cultures. "[4][13] The trails, roads, and bridges were designed not only to link the empire physically, but these structures also helped the empire to maintain communication. Transportation and storage of jerky Or 'charki' (the Inca name) was much easier to transport and lasted longer than not dried meats. Receive emails about upcoming NOVA programs and related content, as well as featured reporting about current events through a science lens.

[15], According to author Mark Cartwright, "Inca roads covered over 40,000 km (25,000 miles), principally in two main highways running north to south across the Inca Empire, which eventually spread over ancient Peru, Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia. Chasqui were message runners who were essential to the Inca system of government. d. incidents should be managed at the highest jurisdictional level possible. At its height, the Inca empire controlled all of the western part of the … He had found Machu Picchu, a citadel atop a mountainous jungle along the Urubamba River in Peru. [17] At the bridge site, a builder(s) would travel to the opposite landmass that they were working to connect. The terrain, according to Ciezo de Leon, an early chronicler of Inca culture, was formidable. The Inca Empire is known as the largest empire of America. "The riches that were gathered in the city of Cuzco alone, as capital and court of the Empire, were incredible," says an early account of Inca culture written 300 years ago by Jesuit priest Father Bernabe Cobo, "for therein were many palaces of dead kings with all the treasure that each amassed in life; and he who began to reign did not touch the estate and wealth of his predecessor but .... built a new palace and acquired for himself silver and gold and all the rest.". They did this on foot and sometimes with the help of animals (llamas and alpacas). Records were kept by the Inca in the form of knotted strings called quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo). [16] Once this was finished, the riggers carefully made their way across the hanging cables, tying the foot-ropes together and connecting the handrails and the foot-ropes with the remainder of the thin grass ropes. [12] The drains and culverts helped in directing the accumulating water either along or under the road.[12]. You can practice this in a simulation here.[7]. [2] Tipon also had natural springs that they built fountains for that supplied noble residents with water for non agricultural purposes.

[15] After creating their ropes and cables, they had planned to stretch the bridge across a dry basin between two campus buildings. :.-- ..- .--...-.-..--.---. [6] The different layering of materials is part of what makes the terraces so successful. By Ciezo de Leon's own observation the extreme riches and expert stone work of the Inca were beyond belief: "In one of (the) houses, which was the richest, there was the figure of the sun, very large and made of gold, very ingeniously worked, and enriched with many precious stones....They had also a garden, the clods of which were made of pieces of fine gold; and it was artificially sown with golden maize, the stalks, as well as the leaves and cobs, being of that metal....Besides all this, they had more than twenty golden (llamas) with their lambs, and the shepherds with their slings and crooks to watch them, all made of the same metal. At one point, "their (the Inca) empire eventually extended across western South America from Quito in the north to Santiago in the south, making it the largest empire ever seen in the Americas and the largest in the world at that time (between c. 1400 and 1533 CE). [21] Either way, museums like the Smithsonian are working to preserve and display examples and knowledge of the Inca inspired rope bridges today. After the wall is built, the larger rocks would be placed on the bottom, then smaller rocks, then sand, then soil.[6][8]. [5][6] The solution to these problems was the development of terraces, called Andenes. Reinforcements for his troops came quickly and his conquest of a people soon moved into consolidation of an empire and its wealth. "[19] The previous Q’eswachaka Bridge is cut down and swept away by the Apurímac River current and a new bridge is built in its place. Strictly speaking, the name "Inca" refers to the first royal family and the 40,000 descendants who ruled the empire. These channels carried the runoff into the main drain, avoiding the main water supply. [16] Not all rope bridges were exactly alike in terms of design and build. Discuss how crime shows violate an adherence to due process protections. [16] This was a longer span than any European masonry bridges at the time.

-.. -. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. [11][12] The high elevation (low atmospheric pressure) and low temperatures of the Andes mountains is what allowed them to take advantage of this process. [8] This wall had many uses, including absorbing heat from the sun during the day and radiating it back out at night, often keeping crops from freezing in the chilling nighttime temperatures, and holding back the different layers of sediment. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. all depend on the slope of the land. For example, a planting method is known as "three sisters" incorporated the growth of corn, beans, and squash in the same terrace. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. [6][8] The larger rocks at the base of each terrace level are what allowed the water to flow more easily through the larger spaces in between the rocks, eventually coming out at the “Main Drain”. Shorter crossroads linked the two main highways together in several places. In some cases, this led to sibling marriage, because the strongest connection you could have would be if you were the child of two descendants of Manco Capac. [4] The Inca people built this site atop a hill which was terraced (most likely for agricultural purposes). [3] This date was determined and based on the Carbon 14 test results. Most of the society was organized into ayllus, who were taxed and received domestic goods according to the size of their groups. The Inca had advanced knowledge of engineering. They were built to last and to withstand the extreme natural forces of wind, floods, ice, and drought. Bauer, Brian. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco.The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century. McEwan argues that Chokepukio may be the town of Tambo Tocco, reported in Inca legends as the originating town of the Inca and that Cusco was founded from that city. Most citizens worked on the construction and maintenance of the canal and irrigation systems, bronze and stone tools to complete the water-tight stone canals. Since grass rots away over time, the bridges had to be rebuilt every year. [16] Stone beams were built on either side of the gorge and were used in helping to position and secure the cables. After evaluating the water supply, the civil engineers designed a 2,457-foot (749 m)-long canal to what would become the city’s center.

You will receive an answer to the email. Abasic premise of the national response framework is that: a. most incidents begin and end locally and are managed at the local or tribal level. Drains and culverts were built to ensure that rainwater would effectively run off of the road's surface. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. "[12] It is known to have "extended some 3500-4000 km along the mountainous backbone of South America. “Machu Pichu: Ancient Hydraulic Engineering”. -. The amount of control exercised by Cusco over the rest of the empire varied from place to place, as might be expected for such a huge empire. The ruler at the height of the empire was Inca Yupanqui, who renamed himself Pachacuti (Cataclysm) and ruled between AD 1438-1471. [10] This was because the fixed nitrogen in the beans helped the corn grow, while the squash acted as mulch keeping the soil moist, and also acted as a weed repellant. Even with our advanced mountaineering clothing and equipment of today, it is hard for us to acclimatize and cope with the cold and dehydration experienced at the high altitudes frequented by the Inca.

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